TI SUMMER 2017 BLOG

Introduction
In the current scenario, it has been a common observation that the classes on basic electronics focus on just the theory part. There is a serious lack in practical application of this knowledge. It has resulted in decrease in enthusiasm towards the engineering curriculum. Also, having just theoretical knowledge does not cater to the needs of the modern industry. The 4-week long Summer Internship Programme on Microcontroller based Embedded System Design organized by the Texas Instruments CEPD, NSIT, New Delhi aimed to provide explicit first-hand experiences to the participants in the field of electronics and make them take the first step towards a promising career in the field of electronics and embedded systems. It also aimed at inciting the maker spirit and providing proficiency in implementing their own ideas in the form of working projects.

This programme was targeted at students, teachers, and professionals who are starting their career in embedded systems. It offered three tracks –

Track A – MSP430 Low Power Microcontroller from Texas Instruments

Track B – TIVA C from Texas Instruments

Track C – BeagleBone Black Single Board Computer from Texas Instruments

Fee Structure

Students

Track A Rs.16,000/-

Track B Rs.18,000/-

Track C Rs.21,000/-

Faculty & Government R&D Organizations

Track A Rs.21,000/-

Track B Rs.23,000/-

Track C Rs.26,000/-

Professionals

Track A Rs.31,000/-

Track B Rs.33,000/-

Track C Rs.36,000/-

A total response of 87 interested participants was received from numerous institutions and hailing from 15 states. These participants are currently pursuing graduation or post-graduation in various fields.

Each participant was provided with a backpack consisting of a customised components box, tools box, multimeter, Launchpad microcontroller evaluation kit and a T-shirt as a gift from TI-CEPD, NSIT. It also contained one micro SD card loaded with one of the finest collection of books, track specific as well as common to all the three tracks. After all, as Jasper Forde says, books may look like nothing more than words on a page, but they are actually an infinitely complex imaginotransference technology that translates odd, inky squiggles into pictures inside your head. It was also loaded with important software like EAGLE CAD and Code Composer Studio required for the duration of workshop. The aim for providing all these components was to support the spirit of invention that ignited as a spark during the programme and also to not let the lack of resources come in way of this spirit at the conclusion of this 4-week long programme.

If you sow an action, you reap a habit.

If you sow a habit, you reap a character.

If you sow a character, you reap a destiny.”

DAY 1 – JUNE 5

Inauguration ceremony

As seen over the years, this year’s Texas Instrument’s Summer Internship Programme on Embedded Product Design also began with great zeal. An overwhelming response was observed across all three tracks of the internship programme. The day commenced with registrations and distribution of ID cards. This was followed by distribution of backpacks, containing the kits. The event formally commenced in a traditional way with the ceremonial lighting of the Electronic Lamp. (A project patented by CEDT, NSIT)

This ceremony was followed with a briefing by Prof. Dhananjay V. Gadre, Director TI-CEPD, NSIT about the internship programme and the Centre of Electronics Design and Technology (CEDT) Laboratory at NSIT. Prof. Gadre also discussed about the role and importance of electronics and embedded systems in our day-to-day life. He also discussed the commercial applications and feasibility of embedded products. The session here broke for tea, post which, Prof. Gadre again took the stage to demonstrate the various projects completed at CEDT. This exercise incited a keen interest among the participants.

CEDT/TI-CEPD Projects Description

  1. Battery-less TV Remote:

An environment friendly remote which does not require batteries. It runs on a Faraday generator and just needs a few shakes for its operation.

  1. Battery-Less LED Dice:

An electronic dice which generates numbers from 1 to 6 randomly. It uses a faraday generator for power.

  1. Birthday Blowout Candles:

Fireless programmable birthday candles that go off when blown and also play a happy birthday song!

  1. Electronic Hourglass:

A MSP430 puppy based LED hourglass with a novel orientation sensor. It is also equipped with timeout buzzer.

  1. Cricket and 1-D Pong:

Implements two player 1-D Pong and Cricket games based on LFSR.

  1. Internal and external temperature sensor and Mux’ed SSD:

Displays the ambient as well as CPU core temperature in both Celsius and Fahrenheit scales on 7- segment displays.

  1. LED Inauguration Lamp System:

An inauguration lamp that doesn’t involve fire. It has a 3-D printed fake fire flames, along with an electronic matchstick.

  1. LED Spinning Top:

A top which prints messages as it spins.

  1. Hacked Toy Laser Gun:

Electronic laser target shooting practice game with LED targets.

  1. Electronic visiting card:

A visiting card printed on a PCB that can be plugged into a USB port redirecting the user to the website of the person who owns it, in this case Prof. Gadre.

  1. Customized Memento:

A personalized electronic memento, which shows the use of LED as a sensor.

  1. 2 and a 1/2-digit Charlieplexed Display:

A display made using 20 charlieplexed LEDs using an 8 pin microcontroller.

  1. Hearty:

A wearable interactive LED heart. The heartbeat speeds up if anyone comes close to it and displays interesting patterns.

  1. Smart egg tray:

An egg tray which notifies when the numbers of eggs kept in it falls below a threshold number. It is based on the IoT paradigm.

  1. RGB color mixer:

Controls the intensity of red, green, blue colors to make millions of new colors.

  1. RGB LED Pen:

A pen which can make 7 colors using the RGB combinations. It can used be for creating interesting patterns and artworks in long exposure shoots.

  1. Illuminated eye loupe:

A lens with LEDs supporting it, for better vision in dark also.

  1. CPLD based game Race of Gladiators:

A CPLD based game which uses LEDs arranged in a circular pattern, switches and random number generator.

  1. GAMMA:

A smart device that can be attached to a toothbrush and can tell if the person has brushed their teeth well, using an app.

  1. LED Tengu:

A device which takes an audio input and lip syncs it using LEDs.

  1. Talking Thermometer:

A multi-lingual thermometer based on Raspberry Pi that speaks out the current temperature in Celsius or Fahrenheit scales. A useful device for the visually impaired.

  1. LED as a Sensor:

A setup which demonstrates the functioning of Led as a sensor. As the amount of light falling on the LED changes, its rate of blinking also changes.

  1. Levitating Doll:

A doll which remains levitated in the air. It is based on the principle of magnetic levitation.

  1. RGB Color Mixer with wireless control:

Controls the intensity of red, green, blue colors to make millions of new colors using an Android application through Bluetooth.

  1. POV:

A device based on the persistence of vision. It displays a message when shaken sideways. Faraday generator is used as the source of power for this device.

Projects Under CEDT/TI-CEPD

DAY 2 JUNE 6

Morning Session

The pre-lunch session of day 2 was common to all the tracks. Prof. Gadre proceeded with his first presentation, which explored the importance of embedded system and the factors responsible in choosing microcontrollers and various other components like storage, filters, etc. for your product. Following this, an introduction to ‘Embedded System Design’ was given. After a brief discussion about ‘What are embedded systems?’ examples of embedded systems being used at home like the refrigerator, AC, TV remote were discussed. This was followed by facts enlightening participants about the size of embedded industry. According to estimates, about Rs-. 32 lakh crore will be required each year by the year 2020 in India alone.

This was followed by a comparison between ‘Embedded Systems’ and ‘Desktop Computers’, discussing each of them at levels like cost involved, reliability and accuracy constraints, task specifications, real time use, resources involved and programming needs.

Afternoon Session

The post-lunch lecture was dedicated towards learning a CAD software named ‘EAGLE’ which is the acronym for Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor. During this session, the participants were given a detailed explanation and use of various tools used for making a schematic in EAGLE. The schematic diagram of a common emitter (CE) amplifier circuit was made as an exercise and the code practice oscillator (CPO) circuit was given as homework for practice.

 

DAY 3 JUNE 7

Morning Session

In this session, Prof. Gadre delved further in the world of embedded systems. Different terminologies involved in the making of an embedded system such as microprocessors, microcomputers, microcontrollers and SoC (System on chip) were emphasised upon. Various associated development tools such as assembler, compilers, debuggers, emulators and evaluation kits were also introduced. This was followed by introduction of the two different types of instruction set architecture for the processors – CISC and RISC. CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer whereas RISC for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. The advantages and drawbacks of one over the other were discussed.

Then a very fascinating idea of Six Box Model for Designing an Embedded System was introduced by Prof. Gadre in which every element of an embedded system was categorised in the under mentioned six boxes. Numerous input and output peripherals, communication protocols and power supplies were discussed briefly.

Afternoon Session

The post-lunch lecture was taken by Srijan. The participants were familiarised with the various tools associated with designing of a board layout. As an exercise, the board layout of the CE amplifier circuit, for which the schematic was made on day 2, was made with a special emphasis on the placement of various components and the routing angle. Doubts regarding the schematic of CPO were cleared and the schematics were verified. The board layout of Code practice oscillator (CPO) was given as homework.

DAY 4 JUNE 8

Morning Session

The day began with a talk on peltier modules, which was followed by discussion on optocoupler and optoisolator. The application of optocoupler in printer heads and optoisolator in isolating two systems using light, by providing two different grounds seemed very fascinating to the participants. For keeping a track of time, the RTC (Real time clock) was explored. The participants were asked to suggest a solution for the battery backup of the RTC, in case of power failure. A simple solution to this, using two diodes was explained.

This was followed by an introduction to the processor, host, power supply to the system, and the communication links within the system and with the outside world. After this, sir described how to form a union of these six elements with the “electronic glue”. Electronic glue could be any analog circuitry which would measure, filter, amplify signals or process these 6 boxes.

Afternoon Session

On day 4 also the EAGLE session continued post lunch. The board layouts of the CPO were checked and verified by mentors. All the doubts relating to the making of schematics and board layouts were also cleared. A basic gist of the fabrication process was that was to be undertaken the next day was also covered.

DAYS 5 & 6 – JUNE 9 & 10

Day 5 began with the learning in detail of the nitty-gritties of the fabrication process. The participants were required to fabricate a PCB for the code practice oscillator (CPO), for which they themselves had prepared the board layout. After one final verification, the process of fabrication commenced.

Following steps were involved in the process of fabrication and it took two days for the process to complete: 

DAY 7 JUNE 12

Morning Session

In this morning session, Prof. Gadre discussed important features of modern microcontrollers like clock and reset. The discussion also involved multiple clock and reset sources. Students were also briefed about the idea of clock scalability. Then, using human body as an analogy, sir explained the different operating modes of a microcontroller (active, sleep, power off). The concept of pull up and pull down resistors was also introduced in this session.

Post tea break, he moved on to the “controller” part of the six box approach model. Again using humans as an analogy, sir correlated the essential needs of humans in present times – Roti, Kapda, Makaan and Internet – to that of microcontrollers. The Roti, Kapda, Makaan and Internet of microcontrollers comprise of clock, reset, power supply and program download ability. The session came to an end with Gadre sir describing the contents of the Launchpads to the participants.

Afternoon Session

  • Track A – MSP430

On the seventh day of the internship, track specific lectures began post lunch. Under the able mentorship of Riddhi Luthra and Shubhangi Passi, participants in the MSP430 track were introduced to its salient features – CPU and memory architecture, organisation of RAM and ROM, CPU registers, addressing modes and instruction format.

  • Track B – TIVA C

The post lunch session for track 2 began with an introduction to TIVA-C and its architecture, given by Rahul Sharma. This was followed by installation and configuration of Code Composer Studio and Tivaware. Then, the participants were taught how to access the registers and use this access to blink the on-board LED.

  • Track C – Beagle Black

The separate track of BeagleBone Black kicked off under the able mentorship of Varun Yadav with differentiating among Microprocessor, Microcontroller, System on Chip (SoC), Single Board computer and desktop computer and why we use single board computers. This was followed by a basic overview of the BBB hardware and features. Then, different ways of connecting to the BBB, like through USB, Ethernet, RNDIS, etc. and the different peripherals that can be connected to the BBB were discussed. The day came to an end with the installation of custom OS (Ubuntu) using SD card and learning the boot sequence of BBB.

DAY 8 JUNE 13

Morning Session

The eighth day of the internship programme marked the advent of one of the least looked upon but most important block of the six box model – The Power Supply Unit. A detailed insight into the basic functioning, types and components that make up a power supply unit were discussed by Prof. Gadre.

He laid a special emphasis upon the designing of such supplies ranging from using simple components like zener diodes to more complex ones. It began with the discussion of the design paradigms for linear supplies using analog building blocks. A brief introduction to operational amplifier was also provided.

The first major class of power supply to be discussed was the linear power supply. Its various features and drawbacks were discussed. The subsequent discussions were focussed upon the second major class of power supplies the Switched Mode Power Supply. It overcomes one of the major drawbacks of linear supplies – low efficiency. It was followed by a discussion on the fundamental topological differences between buck, boost and buck-boost supplies which concluded this morning session.

Afternoon Session

  • Track A – MSP430

This MSP430 lecture laid emphasis on the key features of MSP430 including supply voltage range, power consumption, quiescent current, clock module configurations, taking reference from the datasheet and user guide of MSP430.

  • Track B – TIVA C

The 2nd day of the TIVA track with the clearing of doubts from the previous session. Then, using Tivaware library functions, RGB LEDs were blinked at different rates. Further, an introduction to switches was given. The condition of switch bouncing and ways to eliminate it were also discussed. The session ended with the explanation of the code for control of on-board LED using on-board user switch.

  • Track C – BeagleBone Black

The post lunch session for the BBB track began with an introduction to network, types of networks and WireShark. The participants were then familiarised with wire and packet switching. This was followed by an example of a simple 4 node network connected directly and indirectly. They were then taught packet allocation and multiplexing, and & layers of an ideal OSI network. Data link, band width and throughput, latency, versions of IP addresses, gateways, subnets, proxies and port forwarding were also discussed in detail.

DAY 9 JUNE 14

Morning Session

With an exuberant audience eager to start, the day began with Prof. Gadre explaining about different types of LEDs other than the common ones that are frequently used for tinkering. Discussion started with the Addressable LEDs, both common anode and common cathode along with the technique of how to choose the value of resistor which is in series with the LED. Then, different topologies of LEDs with current requirement was discussed along with the need of ULN2003 and ULN2803 LED driver ICs in particular situations where current required is large. Next, charlieplexing and multiplexing of LEDs were discussed along with their merits and demerits. The session then broke off for breakfast break.

After the tea break, stepper motor as shaft encoder demo experiment was demonstrated. This was followed by the discussion over different types of multimeter display. Then, the concept of High side switching and low side switching was explained using the SSD LEDs topology. This marked the end of the common lecture.

Afternoon Session

  • Track A – MSP430

The post lunch break session started off with the ways operands can be fetched from: registers, memory, port and immediate value. Then, types of instructions were discussed: Data transfer, Arithmetic and logic shifting, Program control and miscellaneous.

  • Track B – TIVA C

This TIVA session began with the code to toggle on-board LED using user switch. This was followed by a discussion on filters and their characteristics. Then, the participants were introduced to ADC. After that, they were given an introduction to interrupts, hardware and software PWMs. The session concluded for the day with the explanation of code for software PWM.

  • Track C – Beagle Black

The post lunch session started with the navigation of Linux file system in BBB. Then, the participants were introduced to Linux command line, use of text editors like Nano and the concept of Shell scripting. This was followed by teaching ‘Time Scheduling’ using crontab, transfer of file using Filezilla and setting u internet connection to the BBB.

DAY 10 JUNE 15

Morning Session

The morning lecture taken up by Prof. Gadre involved discussion regarding Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Graphic LCD (GLCD). Sir explained the working of both the devices and the major difference between the two. Next, the working of buzzer as well as speaker was explained to the students. This was followed by the working of a dc motor, and how to drive one using push-pull configuration as well as using high side and low side switches.

Post tea break, sir discussed dc motor in more detail; the use of PWM to reduce the voltage across motor was explained. The subsequent discussion was focused upon relays and how to control mains (220V) using relay, in an effective and efficient manner.

Afternoon Session

  • Track A – MSP430

The MSP430 track lecture started with the introduction of interrupts. The various maskable and non maskable interrupts present in MSP430 were discussed. The participants actively implemented the concept where the interrupt was provided using the on-board switch and its occurrence toggled the state of the on-board LED. The session ended with a brief discussion of various low power modes available in MSP430.

  • Track B – TIVA C

The post lunch furthered the discussion on ADC and PWM. The participants were then acquainted with the ways to read the value of an ADC. They were then taught the ways to implement PWM using external hardware. Ways to change clock frequency were also taught.

  • Track C – Beagle Black

The post lunch session of day was dedicated to the fabrication and testing of BBB Cape 1.

DAY 11 JUNE 16

Morning Session

The morning lecture began with the reviewing of the digital building blocks like counters, multiplexers and comparators by Prof. Gadre. Using a basic counter and a comparator, a PWM generator was implemented. The lecture further delved into the characteristics of a PWM signal, its frequency in relation to the clock frequency and its resolution. An activity that involved producing average voltage (after passing through a low pass filter of an appropriate frequency) was also undertaken. Next technique to be introduced was charlieplexing, a unique way of connecting more LEDs using a lesser number of GPIO pins. An amazing adaptation of this concept, a charlieplexed 2-1/2 digit display project was also shown and its working explained. Further, numerous ADCs like SAR ADC, Flash Type ADC, etc. were also discussed. Thereafter, Sir moved on to programming insights. This session concluded with Sir giving project ideas to the participants.

Afternoon Session

  • Track A – MSP430

In this session, the participants worked on input-output interfacing. The user input was recorded through a push button switch and the participants toggled the on-board LED accordingly.

  • Track C – Beagle Black

This session began with the explaining of basics of programming like OOPs, interpreters and compilers. An introduction to Python and its datatypes was given next. Then, loops, decision making and modules were discussed in detail. File handling and error handling were also discussed in brief. The session ended with the interfacing of camera using BASH commands and making telegram requests using Python.

DAY 12 AND 13 JUNE 17 AND 18

The weekend was fully devoted to the soldering of commercially fabricated Mini Voyager 1 and 2 boards. Mini Voyager 1 and 2 are peripheral interfacing experimenter boards which can be used with various microcontrollers. Mini Voyager 1 consists of RGB LEDs, charlieplexed LEDs, potentiometer, capacitive touch, thermistor, navigation keys, 4 digit seven segment display and a light dependent resistor (LDR). The board of Mini Voyager 2 includes a LCD, a multiplexed keypad, RTC, buzzer and a shift register.

The entire lot was divided in batches and each batch was allotted a specific time frame so that each participant can understand and realise the importance of soldering PCBs and can solder efficiently.

Each participant was provided with a small kit containing all the components required to solder Mini Voyager boards.

Mini Voyagers 1 and 2

The Mini Voyagers 1 & 2 are based on the VOYAGER board, which has been aptly named after the Voyager missions sent by NASA to explore the worlds beyond ours. For a similar purpose, the voyagers, designed at CEDT, NSIT are starter kits for all embedded enthusiasts who wish to explore and interface a vast multitude of hardware components with their microcontroller. Mini voyager 1 consists of a 4 digit seven-segment display, RGB LEDs, Charlieplexed LEDs, navigation switches, etc. Mini voyager 2 consists of an LCD, shift registers, RTC, etc. All these components are provided on a single board on the voyager. The best thing about these boards is that they can be used with any microcontroller that works on 5V or 3.3V. They are easy-to use handy products which when uploaded with required code are good to go!

  • Track C – Beagle Black (June 17)

In this session, git and version control were introduced. Device tree source and binary objects were also described. LEDs were toggled using BASH commands. Participants were also taught hardware interfacing using Python. This was followed by a discussion on projects and projects were finalised.

DAY 14 JUNE 19

Morning Session

In this lecture, Prof. Gadre brought up the concept of polling vs. interrupt. The difference between polling and interrupt – whether asked by the software or told by the hardware – were also discussed. Participants were engaged in an activity of implementing both the methods in a multimeter with a seven – segment based display. Further, more emphasis was laid on the concept of interrupt. The different types of interrupts, being maskable or non-maskable and vectored or non-vectored, the executional differences between a normal and an interrupt subroutine were also discussed.

Then, the differences between a macro and a subroutine were highlighted and the advantages of one over the other discussed. Also, the concept of blocking and non-blocking subroutines were introduced which concluded the morning session.

Afternoon Session

  • Track A – MSP430

During this afternoon session mid-way through the workshop, the participants actively implemented the concept of interrupt using their launch pads and CCS. The on-board switch was used to provide interrupt and its occurrence toggled the state of the on-board LED. Further, various maskable and non maskable interrupts that are present in MSP430 were discussed. The various registers involved in the process were also unravelled. The concept of vectored and non-vectored interrupt was also touched upon. The session ended with a brief introduction of the clock module and its various available sources in MSP430.

  • Track B – TIVA C

This session focused on using the peripherals on the Mini Voyagers. The participants were taught multiplexing of SSDs, use of charlieplexed LEDs, change the refresh rates of the SSDs using potentiometer and LDR.

  • Track C – Beagle Black

The post lunch session started off with toggling of LEDs and reading of switches using Python. This followed displaying of digits 0-9 on a SSD using a SSD library. Then, a 4-digit Hex counter was made using SSDs. The day ended with the implementation of PWM on a single LED.

DAY 15 JUNE 20

Morning Session

Prof. Gadre began the morning by showing a microcontroller based circuit having three controls to change the intensity of an RGB led. Participants were taught how to actually provide the Roti, Kapda, Makaan and Internet in their final PCB. The power supply, reset pin and clock connections were shown. This was followed by an emphasis on the connections required to program the microcontroller using the JTAG (Joint Test Action Group). This exercise of understanding a simple circuit took the participants a step closer to the completion of their projects. The PWM signal generation to change the intensity, the use of transistors for higher current capabilities, coarse and fine adjustment of the potentiometer, gave the participants a great insight into circuit designing! This further led to a discussion over the project chosen by the participants.

Afternoon Session

  • Track A – MSP430

In this post-lunch lecture, various clock sources and the timer module were discussed. The idea of using a crystal as an external clock was also pondered upon. All the registers involved in the timer module were discussed in great detail. Also, the participants implemented the concept of pulse width modulation using the available timer module on their MSP 430 Launchpads. The day concluded with the explaining and implementation of the code for toggling the on-board LED once every second with the help of timer.

  • Track B – TIVA C

This TIVA lecture began with an introduction to UART. The participants were enlightened upon the libraries and function that can be used for implementing UART communication between two systems. Then, they were given the Coding Ninja exercises to establish communication between two components using UART.

  • Track C – Beagle Black

The session began with hardware implementation of PWM. Then various analog elements like potentiometer, LDR and thermistor were discussed in detail. Then, the participants were taught how to read values from an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). An introduction to IoT was also given and its various uses and applications were also discussed. Various popular IoT services like ThingSpeak, Xively, data.Sparkfun, iot.net.in, etc. were also discussed.

DAY 16 JUNE 21

Morning Session

The morning session day 16 of the workshop began with Prof. Gadre giving an introduction to communication protocols. Serial or parallel, wired or wireless, inter- or intra- device, and synchronous or asynchronous are the broad classification of the different communication protocols. The three important physical communication interfaces stressed upon were UART, I2C and SPI. UART is the oldest and most commonly used asynchronous serial communication protocol. Then, serial protocols RS232, RS422 and RS485, which are based on UART, were discussed in detail followed by the introduction of PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator). Sir also showed the way to generate a random number using LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) or using the noise produced by electrical components like resistors and diodes by using them as ADC inputs.

Afternoon Session

  • Track A – MSP430

The lecture of track A began with a discussion on ADCs. The various features of the 10 bit ADC present in MSP430G2553 were discussed. The very concept of the analog to digital conversion, the appropriate sampling rate, the time required for the controller to produce the corresponding digital value, the various input channels of ADCs and the Sample and Hold Circuitry of the ADC were covered in detail.

This was followed by the implementation of the code to read the value of LDR and display it on SSD present on the mini voyager 1 board.

  • Track C – Beagle Black

In this session, participants were taught to us a BBB as a webserver. They were also instructed on how to extract data from websites using ThingHTTP by explain an example of downloading of weather forecast.

DAY 17 JUNE 22

  • Track A – MSP430

The morning session was dedicated to learning to communicate using UART protocol. A code which took input from the keyboard and displayed the data received by the microcontroller on Putty was explained and implemented. A basic insight into communication using SPI protocol was also discussed and implemented using a simple code.

The afternoon lecture was about interfacing of the LCD with MSP430G2553. This began with a through discussion on the data sheet of LCD and highlighting of its important features. This was followed by the coding part of the LCD that was implemented using two methods: using _busyflag and using_delay. The code was explained and later implemented.

DAY 18 JUNE 23

The last common lecture of this program began with a discussion on how to program the target IC in the projects. Then, Prof. Gadre elaborated upon the basic electronics components like Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors. He also discussed about multi-layered PCBs commonly used in the motherboards and processors of most of the electronics devices present out there. Further, he explained the principle behind the ‘Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator’ that is used for improving the stability of RTC.

Post tea break, he went on to discuss the significance of independent Digital and Analog Vcc pins in the ICs. The reason behind connecting a capacitor between the Vcc and Gnd pins of an IC was explored in great detail. Further, the impact of wrong placing of capacitors and proper laying of tracks in a board layout were also explained, thus, ensuring that the participants were extra careful while working on their projects. The session concluded with Sir discussing the various doubts and difficulties faced by participants while working on their projects.

Later, in the evening, participants enjoyed an enthralling Golgappa party which also promoted interaction among them. The participants were joined few of the faculty members of NSIT.

From 24th to 30th June:

The last week of the internship program was fully devoted to transformation of ideas into working projects. The participants and their respective mentors worked in tandem to make this possible. Many innovative ideas were put forward both by participants and mentors to counter the potential problems that could be through their projects, and also the additional peripherals that could be added to them so that their projects are not limited to single function. They developed their schematics, board file, and bill of material from scratch, and then went on to the fabrication process. With a working board in their hand, they implemented well-defined algorithms to make the on-board peripherals work. The participants finally had their ideas realised in the form of a working project.

Some of the Completed Projects

Convocation Ceremony

The convocation ceremony was held in the evening of 30th June. Prof. Gadre addressed the gathering of the participants, mentors and some important members of the Institute. He also reminisced the past month and asked the participants to further enhance what they had learned in the internship. He also invited participants to present their projects to an IEEE conference which was held the following day. This was followed by brief addresses from Prof. J. Jena and Prof. T.K. Rawat. A few participants also shared their experience and extended a heartfelt thanks to Prof. Gadre and the mentors. With the distribution of certificates, the month long tourney came to a happy ending.

An idealist believes the short run doesn’t count. A cynic believes the long run doesn’t matter. A realist believes that what is left done or undone in the short run determines the long run.”

-Sydney J. Harris