Internship Programme on Microcontroller based Embedded System Design
Summer 2016 – A Report
Abhishek Bansal, Aditi Mishra, Anuj Dhillon, Apoorva Arora, Apoorva Mahajan, Kartikay Golcha, Riddhi Luthra, Ritu Prasad, Rolly Baradiya, Ruchi, Sameera Malik, Siddharth Sharma, Shubhangi Gupta, Shubhangi Passi, Tanvi Singh, Vatsala Singh
You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.
― R. Buckminster Fuller
In the current scenario, the classes on basic electronics theory are indeed just that: theory. This does not resonate with the students and eventually ends up dissipating their enthusiasm in the engineering curriculum. The TI Centre for Embedded Product Design, NSIT, New Delhi organized a 4-week long Summer Internship Programme on Microcontroller based Embedded System Design, to help develop this pedagogy of providing explicit first-hand experience to the participants in the field of electronics. It aimed at transfusing in them the maker spirit and providing proficiency in implementing their own ideas in the form of working projects
The programme was targeted at students, teachers and professionals who are starting their career in embedded systems. It offered two tracks –
Track A – MSP430 Low Power Microcontroller from Texas Instruments
Track B – BeagleBone Black Single Board Computer from Texas Instruments
The registrations for the programme commenced during the last week of March, 2016. Over 150 entries from ungergraduate & post-graduate students as well as faculty, from numerous institutions across 17 states were received by the deadline of mid May. The interested applicants confirmed their participation by paying the requisite programme fees before the commencement of the programme on June 6, 2016.
There were 116 confirmed participants – students and faculty – from a multitude of disciplines. Illustrated below are some interesting statistics, highlighting the multiformity of the participants.
Geographic Distribution of Participants
Each participant was provided with a backpack consisting the INSPIRE Components Kit (http://dvgadre.blogspot.in/2014/11/reviving-student-interest-in-electronics.html), INSPIRE Tools Box, 3 1/2 Digit Multimeter, Evaluation Kit (of the chosen track) and a t-shirt as a gift from TI-CEPD, NSIT.
It also contained one of the finest collections of books covering topics of general interest, ranging from basic electronics, analog and digital circuits, physical enterfacing, power supply, system design etc, as well as track specific topics like controller architecture and programming. After all, as Jasper Fforde says “Books may look like nothing more than words on a page, but they are actually an infinitely complex imaginotransference technology that translates odd, inky squiggles into pictures inside your head.”
The aim of providing all these components was that the spirit of innovation and invention should not be hampered by the lack of resources after the conclusion of the 4-week programme.
For a detailed report of the activities during the Summer Internship Programme 2016, please click on the links below, or on the navigation bar on the top of the page.
Summer Internship 2016
Week 1 (June 6 – June 12)
So, the Texas Instrument’s Summer Internship Workshop on Embedded Product Design began with great gusto this season and an overwhelming response for both the MSP430 and the BeagleBone Black platforms. The day commenced with registrations followed by photo clicking of each participant for ID card purposes and backpack distributions along with the components and tools kit. The participants assembled in the auditorium and the event was formally kick started by Electronic Lamp lighting ceremony. (A project patented by CEDT, NSIT)
Inauguration using Electronic Lamp
Professor Dhananjay V. Gadre, Director TI CEPD, NSIT briefed the audience about the internship program and Centre for Electronic Design and Technology (CEDT) Laboratory at NSIT followed by introduction of eminent Professors, Dr. Raj Senani and Dr. Tarun Kumar Rawat. Dr. C. P. Ravikumar, Director ,Technical Talent Development at Texas Instruments, India also had a small session with the audience wherein he gave a briefing about Texas Instruments and how it has evolved over the years. The session here broke for tea post which, Dr. Ravikumar again took the stage to discuss the commercial applications and feasibility of embedded products such as the Electronic Lamp itself. This was followed by demonstration of various completed projects at CEDT, an exercise that saw keen attention from the participants as they watched the projects work flawlessly. The session then broke for lunch at 1pm succeeding which Professor Gadre commenced Talk 1 wherein he gave an overview of the Embedded Systems and some typical applications.
Dr. C. P. Ravikumar briefing the participants
Esteemed professors of NSIT gracing the ocassion
CEDT/TI-CEPD Projects Description
- Battery less TV Remote: A remote which does not require batteries. It runs on a faraday generator and just needs a few shakes for its operation.
- Battery less LED Dice: An electronic dice which generates numbers from 1 to 6 randomly. It uses a faraday generator for power.
- Birthday Blowout Candles: Fireless programmable birthday candles that go off when blown and also play a happy birthday song!
- Electronic Hourglass: A MSP430 puppy based LED hourglass with a novel orientation sensor. Also equipped with timeout buzzer.
- Cricket and 1D Pong: Implements two player 1-D Pong and Cricket games based on LFSR.
- Internal and external temperature sensor and Mux’ed SSD: Displays the ambient as well as CPU core temperature in both Celsius and Fahrenheit scales on 7- segment displays.
- LED Inauguration Lamp System: An inauguration lamp that doesn’t involve fire. It has a 3-D printed fake fire flames, along with an electronic matchstick.
- LED Spinning Top: A top which prints messages as it spins.
- Hacked Toy Laser Gun: Electronic laser target shooting practice game with LED targets.
- Electronic visiting card: A visiting card printed on a PCB that can be plugged into a USB port redirecting the user to the website of the person who owns it.
- Customized Memento: A personalized electronic memento, which shows the use of LED as a sensor.
- 2 and a 1/2-digit Charlieplexed Display: A display made using 20 charlieplexed LEDs using an 8 pin microcontroller.
- Hearty: A wearable interactive LED heart. The heartbeat speeds up if anyone comes close to it and displays interesting patterns.
- Smart egg tray: An egg tray which notifies when the numbers of eggs kept in it falls below a threshold number. Based on the IoT paradigm.
- RGB color mixer: Controls the intensity of red, green, blue colors to make millions of new colors.
- RGB LED Pen: A pen which can make 7 colors using the RGB combinations.
- Spectrum analyzer: Classifies audio frequency spectrum into different bands and displays it in the form of bar graphs on a LCD screen.
- Illuminated eye loupe: A lens with LEDs supporting it, for better vision in dark also.
- CPLD based game Race of Gladiators: A CPLD based game which uses LEDs arranged in a circular pattern, switches and random number generator.
- GAMMA: A smart device that can be attached to a toothbrush and can tell if the person has brushed their teeth well, using an app.
- LED Tengu: A device which takes audio input and lip syncs it using LEDs.
- Talking Thermometer: A multi-lingual thermometer that speaks out the current temperature in Celsius or Fahrenheit scales. A useful device for the visually impaired.
Display of the projects under CEDT/ TI CEPD and books by Prof. Dhananjay V. Gadre
Prof. Gadre giving a demonstration of birthday blowout candles
The morning session began with the demonstration of speaker as a microphone, showing how a moving coil (attached to the diaphragm of the speaker) in a magnetic field could produce a voltage. Next, a dc motor was made to work as a generator and the generated voltage was used to power an LED. Then, an experiment showing the working of a Peltier module was shown. Peltier module is a thermocouple which responds to the voltage applied across it in the form of a temperature difference by making one side hot and the other side cold. On the other hand, in another experiment, a temperature difference applied across a peltier module was used to generate power.
Response of a speaker working as a microphone recorded on an oscilloscope
Motor made to work as a generator to power up an LED
Heating of a peltier module to generate potential difference across its ends
Following this, an introductory talk on ‘Embedded System Design’ was given. It started with a discussion about ‘What are embedded systems and where are they found? Some examples of embedded systems being used at home like the refrigerator, AC, TV remote were discussed Following this, some observations were drawn, enlightening the participants about the size of the Embedded Systems Industry and microcontroller/microprocessors with the software’s running on them as the core of this entire system. It is estimated that for India alone, this industry requires an input of about 32 lakh crore rupees by 2020.
Then a comparison was drawn between ‘Embedded Systems’ and ‘Desktop Computers’, discussing each of them at levels like cost involved, reliability and accuracy constraints, task specifications, real time use, resources involved and programming needs.
A graph was plotted between ‘Probability of Failure’ and the ‘Age of a product’, which described how prone a product is to failure at various stages of its life span. This curve came to be known as the ‘Bath tub curve’.
Post Lunch – EAGLE CAD
This session was about using a CAD software named ‘EAGLE’ to make schematics and board layouts headed by Abhishek Kapoor and Arun Kumar (currently pursuing B.E., 7th semester, ECE division, NSIT). It stands for Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor. During this session, the participants were explained the various tools used to make a schematic diagram in EAGLE and as an exercise, the schematic diagram of a common emitter (CE) amplifier circuit was made and the code practice oscillator (CPO) circuit was given as homework for practice.
A CE amplifier schematic practiced during lecture
The morning lecture was taken by Prof. Gadre continuing with TALK -1: Introduction to Embedded System Design. At first, emphasis was laid on understanding the different terminologies involved such as microprocessor, microcomputer, microcontroller and SoC (System on chip) and how we differentiate one from the other. The associated development tools such as assembler, compiler, debugger, emulator and evaluation kit were introduced.
Next in line were the two different types of instruction set architecture for the processors – CISC and RISC. CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer whereas RISC for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. The advantages and drawbacks of one over the other were discussed.
The evolution of the microcontrollers beginning from 4 and 8 bits to as it stands today (16, 32 and 64 bits) was discussed.
Then Professor introduced a very fascinating idea of Six Box Model of an Embedded System in which he categorized every element of an embedded system into these under mentioned six boxes. Numerous input and output peripherals were discussed in great detail.
Six-Box Model of an Embedded System
Post lunch – EAGLE CAD
Post lunch session was taken by Abhishek Kapoor. He continued with the lecture on various tools necessary for making a schematic in EAGLE. After tea break, participants were introduced to the most interesting aspect of this CAD tool-Routing the board layout of a schematic.
The day began with a talk on optocoupler and optoisolator. The application of optocoupler in printer heads and optoisolator in isolating two systems using light, by providing two different grounds seemed very fascinating to the participants . For keeping a track of time, the RTC (Real time clock) was explored. A task, to find a solution for the battery backup of the RTC, in case of power failure, was also given . A simple solution to this, using two diodes was explained.
The processor, host, the power supply to the system, the communication links within the system and with the outside world were introduced. After reviewing all the six boxes, sir went on to describe how to form a union of these elements with the “electronic glue”. Electronic glue could be any analog circuitry which would measure, filter, amplify signals or process these 6 boxes.
Prof. Gadre involved in a discussion about optocoupler
Post lunch – EAGLE CAD
Post lunch, the EAGLE session was continued. The participants were taught the various tools associated with making the board layout. The board layout of the common emitter was completed by each participant. The routing of the Code Practice Oscillator (CPO) that they would be fabricating soon, was given as an exercise. Their mistakes were corrected and their doubts were attended by the mentors. Also, a separate EAGLE lecture was arranged for those participants who had joined late, so that they could catch up with the rest of the class.
A glimpse of the schematic and board file of the CPO board
Common lecture- EAGLE CAD
Sometimes for your project you find a new component for which a suitable library does not exist. Then what do you do? Create your own library. Yes, this lecture was about creating your own library in Eagle.
Creating a new library is a simple and engaging process. A representative symbol of the component is created followed by designing of an appropriate package using the dimensions given in the datasheet (or sometimes dimensions have to be measured using a vernier callipers and screw gauge). Then the pins on the symbol are mapped on to the pins of the package to create the new device.
After the lunch break the participants got an opportunity to learn the nitty-gritties of fabricating a printed circuited board (PCB).
The board layout for the code practice oscillator (CPO) circuit was prepared by the participants themselves. The schematic and board layout were then verified by their mentors before the commencement of the fabrication process.
The entire fabrication process took 3 days for completion which involved several steps as listed below:
- Printing the board layout on a glossy paper
- Preparing the surface of the copper clad board using a sand paper to remove the oxide layer which is non- conducting and has been deposited over time.
- Transferring the ink by pressing: The toner transfer method.
- Removing paper by washing.
- Etching the copper clad by using FeCl3 solution so as to remove the excess copper.
- Scrubbing off the ink to expose copper tracks.
- Using Acrylic spray film to prevent formation of copper oxide.
- Filing out the projections on the edges.
- Soldering the components on the PCB.
- Testing the PCB.
By the end of the day many participants had completed their boards till the drilling process.
Overview of the steps involved in DIY PCB Fabrication
Participant involved in etching process
PCB after scrubbing
The participants were introduced to the most crucial step in the fabrication process i.e. soldering. The entire process was demonstrated and the intricacies involved were discussed before the participants began soldering their boards. The completed circuits went through the testing process and were checked for errors by the mentors.
By the end of the day majority of the participants had their first completed and tested board in their hands.
Completed CPO board
Testing of the CPO board
An extra class was held by Professor Dhananjay Gadre for about 20 late joiners. It covered all the demos and project ideas that were demonstrated on Day 2. Sir also briefed them about embedded systems and the six box approach.
The theme of the lecture was to instill in the participants an undying love for electronics and to inspire them to start thinking creatively and converge innovatively towards their project ideas. After the lunch break, the leftover fabrication was completed under the supervision of the mentors.
Participant soldering components on the CPO board
Summer Internship 2016
Week 2 (June 13 – June 19)
The morning lecture taken up by Professor Gadre involved a discussion regarding the important features of modern microcontrollers like reset and clock. Multiple clock and reset sources were discussed. Students were also briefed about the idea of clock scalability. Professor explained the different operating modes of a microcontroller (active, sleep, power off) by drawing an analogy with the human system. The concept of pull up and pull down resistors was also introduced in this session.
Post tea break, he moved on to the “controller” part of the six box approach model. The Roti, Kapda, Makaan and Internet of microcontrollers which comprises of clock, reset, power supply and program download ability were elaborated.
Track A – MSP430
On Day-8 track specific lectures began post lunch. MSP430 people under the able mentorship of Abhishek Kapoor were introduced to its salient features-CPU and memory architecture, organisation of RAM and ROM, CPU registers, addressing modes and instruction format.
Track B – BeagleBone
Mrityunjai Kumar, an alumnus from ECE division, NSIT took the first lecture of the BeagleBone track. First of all, the basics and important features of BeagleBone were discussed. Its RAM, processor clock and USB support were talked about. Then, its hardware was discussed in detail. BeagleBone and Raspberry Pi were compared, with the strong points of both being highlighted.
All participants were made to connect their BBB’s to their laptops using USB lead, and install drivers. The class ended with everyone’s BeagleBone powered up via USB to the computer and logged in either through Linux Terminal or through Putty.
Day-9 started with a problem statement, to identify if the source of system reset was a user button or power on reset and hence display it on 2 different coloured LEDs. Since data memory is stored in RAM, on user reset the contents of RAM are not lost, while on POR it gets cleared. The solution was identified and presented in the form of a flowchart. Next, structural block diagrams of RAM, ROM and microcomputers were studied. Sources of power, level conversion mechanisms, optimization techniques were the key points. The lecture concluded with an introduction to power supply design considerations in embedded systems.
Participants attending common lectures
In the MSP430 track lecture, the emphasis was on the key features of MSP430 including supply voltage range, power consumption, quiescent current, clock module configuration taking reference from the datasheet and userguide of MSP430.
The lecture provided the participants the first hands-on experience of communicating with the BeagleBone. They were taught how to login when connected to the BBB for the first time and various useful Linux Commands required to interact with it Also, participants learnt how to share the internet using Network-over-USB in BBB by typing the required commands in the Terminal. Thereafter, x11vnc was installed in everyone’s BeagleBone.
The tenth day of the internship programme marked the advent of one of the most important blocks of the six block model-The Power Supply Unit. Prof. Gadre provided an insight into the basic functioning, types and components that made up this unit.
Special emphasis was laid upon the designing of such supplies using simpler components like zener diodes to more complex ones. It began with the discussion of the design paradigms for linear supplies using analog building blocks. A brief introduction of operational amplifier was also provided.
The subsequent discussions were focussed upon the second major class of power supplies-the Switched Mode Power Supply. It overcomes one of the major drawbacks of linear supplies-low efficiency. It was followed by a discussion on the fundamental topological differences between buck, boost and buck-boost supplies which concluded the morning session.
Track A – MSP430
In the afternoon session, the MSP430 track participants began the process of sharpening their coding skills. The participants got the first opportunity code their MSP430G2553 launch pads. The integrated development environment used for the same was Code Composer Studio developed by Texas Instruments (TI). The first code to be practiced was the Hello LED code under the guidance of Arun Kumar. The on-board LED was toggled using software delay.
Arun Kumar guiding the students in their MSP code
Track B – BeagleBone
All participants were involved in the fabrication of the BBB cape zero (an elementary board being used for hardware-interfacing). The fabrication process of the entire PCB containing a potentiometer, LED, push button, resistors, 7-segment display and LDR. was finished in a day under the supervision of the mentors.
BeagleBone Cape Zero
The day began with a discussion over the input devices required for interfacing with the physical world. This was followed by an introduction to Multiplexing wherein a trade-off existed between the number of microcontroller pins used and time. It was put to use to control several seven segment displays. Next in line were the concepts of high side and low side switching. Its common application in multi-storeyed building staircase system was highlighted.
Sir introduced a modulation technique, known as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) which involves successive train of pulses of varying duty cycles in contrast to continuously varying analog signals. Its analog and digital implementations along with its significance in LED intensity control and motor speed control were explored.
Track A – MSP430
In the afternoon session, the participants worked on input-output interfacing. The user input was recorded through a push button switch and the on-board LED toggled accordingly.
Track B – BeagleBone
Cape zero was mounted on the BBB and script file for blinking an led using bash was discussed as well as implemented.
Then, after snacks, the Python Adafruit library was installed in everyone’s BBB and a Python code was written to control the 7- segment display on cape zero. Finally, the class concluded with instructions on how to boot an operating system using SD card.
The last day of the second week of the internship, unlike the other days, had a special schedule. The morning lecture was taken by Professor Gadre. He began by reviewing the digital building blocks like counters, multiplexers, comparators. A PWM Generator was implemented using a basic counter and a comparator. The characteristics of a PWM signal, its frequency in relation to the clock frequency, its resolution were laid emphasis on. An activity that involved producing average voltage (after passing through a low pass filter of an appropriate frequency) was also undertaken. Next technique to be introduced was charlieplexing, a unique way of connecting more LEDs using a lesser number of GPIO pins. An amazing adaptation of this concept, a charlieplexed 2-1/2 digit display project was also shown. Numerous ADCs like SAR ADC, Flash Type ADC were discussed. Thereafter, sir moved on to programming insights
Passing the PWM signal through a low pass filter to produce correspoding analog voltage
Ham Radio Session
Post Lunch, a HAM RADIO sensitization lecture was hosted by Gaurav Tyagi, a licensed HAM, currently pursuing B.E. at NSIT. A HAM communicates and broadcasts information using Morse code to other amateurs for the purpose of entertainment and public service as in a case of natural calamity. Highlighting how amateur radio operation evolved as a hobby over the time and how it got licensed, some bandwidth of frequencies being owned by licensed HAMs, encouraged the participants to delve deeper into the world of radios and wireless communication technology. The examination procedure to obtain the license was also discussed
HAM radio session hosted by Gaurav Tyagi
Prof. J. Jena, Dean UG, addressing the gathering
Later, in the evening, the half-way point of the internship was celebrated in the form of an enthralling Golgappa and ice-cream party. It also promoted interaction within the participants. Prof. J. Jena, Dean Undergraduate Programme, NSIT, also joined in to interact with the participants
Gol Gappa Party
Summer Internship 2016
Week 3 (June 20 – June 26)
Prof. Gadre brought up the concept of polling vs. interrupt. The difference between polling and interrupt is whether the software asks, or the hardware tells it. Participants were engaged in an activity of implementing both the methods in a multimeter with a seven –segment based display. Next, more emphasis was laid on the concept of interrupt. The different types of interrupts, being maskable or non-maskable and vectored or non-vectored, the executional differences between a normal and an interrupt subroutine were discussed.
Next, the differences between a macro and a subroutine were highlighted and the advantages of one over the other discussed. Also, the concept of blocking and non-blocking subroutines were introduced which concluded the morning session.
During the afternoon session, the participants actively implemented the concept of interrupt using their launch pads and CCS .The interrupt was provided using the on-board switch and its occurrence toggled the state of the on-board LED.
The various maskable and non maskable interrupts present in MSP430 were discussed. The various registers involved in the process were unravelled. The concept of vectored and non-vectored interrupt was also revisited.
The session ended with a brief introduction of the clock module and its various available sources in MSP430.
Post lunch session started with the doubts of participants being cleared by Nikhilesh Prasannakumar (senior mentor at TICEPD and Training and Research Faculty at NSIT). Thereafter, everyone’s BBB was updated and rectified so that no further technical issues be generated. The session concluded with him explaining the basics of networks, IPs, routers, switches etc.
The day began with Prof. Gadre discussing numerous project ideas with the participants. The projects had varied applications and affected the environment differently .Few of them involved user interactive games while others dealt with solving issues of the society at large. Few of them also aimed at improving the existing teaching standards.
Next in queue was an elaborate discussion upon how to choose an apt microcontroller for a particular application. The key factors to be considered included power supply, maximum frequency of available modules, functionalities available and number of GPIO pins. The optimal frequency ranges, Nyquist criterion and its relation to dynamic power dissipation were discussed.
In the afternoon lecture, the various clock sources and the timer module were discussed. The idea of using a crystal as an external clock was explored. All the registers involved in the timer module were discussed in great detail. Also the participants implemented the concept of pulse width modulation using the available timer module on their launchpads which concluded the day.
First hour of the session was dedicated to the revision of the basic concepts and programming of the BeagleBone in Python. The issues faced by the students were immediately entertained by their respective mentors.
This was followed by an introduction to the Internet of Things (IoT). Thingspeak platform was introduced which allows users to create channels and fields to upload data on the internet and even obtain a graphical representation of the same. Related functions in Python were discussed to upload data from the BeagleBone and get the response from the server.
Prof. Gadre showed a microcontroller based circuit having three controls to change the intensity of an RGB led. Participants were taught how to actually provide the Roti, Kapda, Makaan and Internet in their final PCB. The power supply, reset pin and clock connections were shown. The connections required to program the microcontroller using the JTAG (Joint Test Action Group) were also laid emphasis on. This exercise of understanding a simple circuit took the participants a step closer to their projects. The PWM signal generation to change the intensity, the use of transistors for higher current capabilities, coarse and fine adjustment of the potentiometer, gave the participants a great insight into circuit designing! This further led to a discussion over the project ideas of the participants.
The participants started with the code for toggling the LED after every sec with the help of a timer, which was introduced in the previous lecture.
The lecture then proceeded with ADCs. MSP430G2553 has a 10 bit ADC. The various features of this ADC were discussed. The very concept of the analog to digital conversion, the appropriate sampling rate, the time required for the controller to produce the corresponding digital value, the various input channels of ADCs and the Sample and Hold Circuitry of the ADC were covered in detail. Successive Approximation ADC was also explained.
Abhishek Kapoor guiding the students with the ADC code
The session was mainly dedicated to resolution of doubts from previous lectures and discussion of project ideas that the participants had. All participants shared their design ideas (which they were supposed to implement in the coming week) with their mentors. Some of the projects discussed were:
- BBB-based Serial Terminal Server
- BBB-based door opening system
- Automatic plant watering system
Day 16 of the workshop began with introduction to communication protocols. The protocols can be broadly classified into serial or parallel, wired or wireless, inter or intradevice, synchronous or asynchronous. The three important physical communication interfaces stressed upon were UART, I2C and SPI. UART is the oldest and most commonly used asynchronous serial communication protocol. Serial protocols RS232, RS422 and RS485, which are based on UART, were further discussed in detail followed by the introduction of PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator). It was seen that random number can be generated using LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) or using the noise produced by electrical components like resistors and diodes by using them as ADC inputs.
Coding part of MSP430 continued and participants were given the all in one peripheral motherboard called “The Voyager”. A group of two people were given a board to work upon. The participants used the required input or output devices present in the board to directly make connections to their launch pads using connecting wires. The first activity involved using the ADC input from an LDR and displaying the intensity of light in the form of a bar graph on the 12 charlieplexed LEDs. The session concluded with the introduction of implementation of UART protocol.
VOYAGER-Peripheral interfacing experimenter board The VOYAGER is a starter kit for all the embedded enthusiasts who wish to interface a vast multitude of hardware components with their microcontroller, giving it the stature of a motherboard. It has been designed at CEDT, NSIT. All commonly used devices like LCD, 4 digit seven-segment display, shift registers, RTC, LDR etc. are provided on a single board which are simple to connect and use. The best thing about this board is that it can be used with any microcontroller that works on 5V or 3.3V.It is an easy-to-use handy product which requires to be uploaded with the desired code and you are good to go!
The session started with discussing the problems faced by the students in compiling and executing programmes on the BeagleBone. The reasons for the error messages were talked upon in detail, which gave a better insight into the working of the BBB and its operating system. This was followed by an introduction to the sys and signal libraries which are required to set the configuration of the BBIO pins to default. Device tree generator, which allows users to create files setting up the required pin configuration, was discussed briefly. Various other commands for further exploration and functionality control were discussed.
The common lecture began with a discussion on how to program the target IC in our project. Then, Prof. Gadre went on to elaborate upon the basic electronics components like Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors. The double sided PCB fabrication was also talked about. Later, the principle behind the Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator being used to improve the stability of RTC was explained. The tear down of a fit bit clone, and a discussion on the processing techniques of the old vs. modern microcontrollers followed next.
post tea break, he went on to discuss the significance of independent Digital and Analog Vcc pins in the ICs.The reason behind connecting the capacitor between the Vcc and Gnd pins of the IC was explored in great detail. The impact of wrongly placing the capacitor and laying the tracks in the board layout was also explained. This ensured that the participants would be careful enough while making their project. The session ended with a brief introduction to Programmable Logic Devices. The applications and classification of PLDs were discussed briefly.
The session was dedicated to communicating using UART protocol. A code which took input from the keyboard and displayed the data received by the microcontroller on Putty was explained and implemented. A lecture on interfacing LCD was planned for the next day.
The emphasis was on project-specific doubts of all the participants. Once the participants were confident about the various aspects of their respective projects, after having exhaustive discussions with their mentors, they started working on it with full enthusiasm.
The lecture headed by Abhishek Kapoor, was about interfacing the LCD with MSP430G2553. Firstly, the data sheet of LCD was thoroughly discussed and the important features were highlighted. After the tea break everybody dwelled into the coding part of the LCD that was implemented using two methods: using _busyflag and using_delay.
The code was explained and later implemented.
Summer Internship 2016
Week 4 (June 27 – July 1)
The last week was fully devoted by the participants to transform their ideas into a working project under the guidance of their respective mentors. Participants came up with innovative ideas and the potential problems that their implementation can solve. Then starting from scratch, they developed their schematics, board file, and bill of material and then went on to the fabrication process. With a working board in their hand, the on-board peripherals were made to function as required with a well-defined coding algorithm. The participants finally had their ideas realised in the form of a working project.
The following are the project ideas put forth and pursued by various participants.
|S. No.||Project Idea||S. No.||Project Idea|
|1||Smart Medical Pillbox||17||Sun light tracker Solar Panel|
|2||Bicycle Speedometer||18||Rock Paper Scissors Game|
|3||Braille decoder||19||Alarm Clock|
|4||BCD to Hexadecimal Converter||20||Music Lamp|
|5||Truth and Dare Game||21||RGB Colour Mixer|
|6||Intra System Comm. using UART||22||Peltier module based Temp. Control|
|7||Digital Temperature Meter||23||Audio Spectrum Analyser|
|8||Colour Mania||24||Still frame photography|
|9||Bidirectional Visitor Counter||25||Snakes and ladders|
|10||Electronic bouquet||26||Power Meter|
|11||Digital candles||27||Heart-Beat Counter|
|12||Electronic Bonsai||28||IR based counter|
|13||Propeller Clock||29||Stop the Cross|
|14||Crazy Nakalchi Alien||30||Temperature sensor fan|
|15||Auto door lock||31||Morse code decoder|
|S. No.||Project Idea||S. No.||Project Idea|
|1||Home Security System||6||Industrial Automation & Monitoring system|
|2||Spy Car||7||Bicycle Computer|
|3||Talking multimeter||8||Automatic plant watering device|
|4||Office desk display device||9||Talking thermometer|
|5||BBB Serial Terminal Server||10||Indoor Navigation System|
The Final Showdown
Here is a collection of a few projects completed in the internship programme by the participants.
There is no greater achievement than seeing your own design in your hands.
-Dr. Raj Senani
The convocation ceremony began at 6 pm in the evening. Prof. Gadre addressed the whole gathering and many important officials of the college joined in. Participants expressed their emotions about the journey and expressed heartfelt gratitude to Prof. Gadre for making it such an enriching experience.
This was followed by the certificate distribution ceremony. Later on, participants relished the special treat organized by CEDT to bid farewell to its interns.
Facts alone, no matter how numerous or verifiable, do not automatically arrange themselves into an intelligible, or truthful picture of the world. It is the task of the human mind to invent a theoretical framework to account for them.